Nilphamari District (rajshahi division) with an area of 1640.91 sq km, is bounded by Kuchbihar district of west bengal (India) on the north, rangpur district on the south, lalmonirhat district on the east and panchagarh and dinajpur districts on the west. Annual temperature: maximum 32.3°C, minimum 11.2°C; annual rainfall 2931mm. Main rivers are Tista, Jamuneshwari, Chikni and Dhaigan.
Nilphamari (Town) consists of 9 wards and 10 mahallas. The area of the town is 19.53 sq km. It has a population of 39838; male 51.33%, female 48.67%. The density of population is 2040 per sq km. Literacy rate among the town people is 48.2%.
Administration The Nilphamari subdivision was established in 1875 and was turned into a district in 1984. The district consists of 6 upazilas, 3 municipalities, 33 wards, 65 mahallas, 62 union parishads, 390 mouzas and 370 villages. The upazilas are dimla, domar, jaldhaka, kishoreganj, nilphamari sadar and saidpur.
Archaeological heritage and relics Birat Dighi (present name Nilsagar), Neel Kuthi (Nilphamari Sadar Upazila), Nat Settlement (prison, 1871), Saidpur Church (1893), Dimla Rajbari, Garh (Fort) of Raja Dharmapal and the remnants of his palace (eighteenth century, Jaldhaka), remnants of the palace of Raja Harish Chandra (Ninth century, Jaldhaka upazila), three domed Jami Mosque at Bherberi (eighteenth century, Kishoreganj upazila).
Historical events The tebhaga movement spread over Domar and Dimla in the 1940s. In this movement the activist Tannarayan was shoot dead by the zamindar. Once indigo was cultivated extensively in this district. The Nilphamari region was under the Votmari Chauki during the British period. Later on the Chauki was transferred first to Shekherhat of Badarganj thana and then to Dokra of Domar thana.
Marks of the War of Liberation Mass killing site 1, mass grave 8, memorial 1.
Population 1550686; male 51.03%, female 48.97%; Muslim 82.64%; Hindu 17.17%, Buddhist 0.02%, Christian 0.07% and others 0.10%; ethnic nationals: Santal population 2000.
Religious institutions Mosque 1956, temple 299, church 2, tomb 13, sacred place 1.
Literacy and educational institutions Average literacy 25.35%; male 33.16%, female 16.98%. Educational institutions: college 26, high school 189, madrasa 275, government primary school 567, non-government primary school 309, vocational institute 1, PTI 1, homeopath college 1, kindergarten 3. Noted educational institutions: Nilphamari Government High School (1882), Jaldhaka Pilot High School (1939), Kishoreganj Multilateral High School (1939).
Locally published newspapers and periodicals Weekly Nilphamari Barta, Nilsagar, Nilsamachar, Weekly Jaldhaka, Weekly Alpana (Saidpur), Saidpur Barta, Janasamasha (Saidpur); extinct: Jagarani (1962), Nilanchan (1972), Shalki (Domer) and Jaltaranga (Jaldhaka).
Cultural organisations Club 95, public library 3, cinema hall 15, theatre group 19, theatre stage 5, literary society 5 and women's organisation 67, circus party 1.
Main occupations Agriculture 45.28%, agricultural labourer 27.81%, wage labourer 3.42%, commerce 8.65%, service 6.07% and others 8.77%.
Land use Total land under cultivation 128515 hectares, fallow land 10000 hectares; forestry 2100 hectares; char land 4500 hectares; single crop 24.08%, double crop 63.65% and treble crop land 12.27%; land under irrigation 45000 hectares. One of the biggest irrigation projects of the country, Tista Barrage Project, begins from Dalia of this district.
Land control Among the peasants 42% are landless, 45% small, 8% intermediate and 5% rich.
Value of land The market value of the land of the first grade is Tk. 6000 per 0.01 hectare.
Main crops Paddy, jute, wheat, potato, tobacco, cotton and ginger.
Extinct and nearly extinct crops Linseed, sesame, indigo, arahar, kaun, aus paddy and mustard seed.
Main fruits Jackfruit, mango, black berry, guava, litchi and banana.
Fisheries, dairies, poultries Dairy 81, poultry 244, fishery 48, nursery 4 and hatchery 7.
Communication facilities Roads: pucca 404 km, semi pucca 49 km and mud road 3301 km; railways 56.6 km; waterways 32 nautical mile; airport 1.
Traditional transport palanquin, horse carriage and bullock cart. These means of transport are either extinct or nearly extinct.
Manufactories Textile mills, aluminium factory, rice and flour mill, oil mill, ice cream factory, biscuit factory, cold storage, welding, saw mill, etc.
Cottage industries Weaving, bamboo work, wood work, blacksmith, goldsmith, tailoring, potter, bidi, etc.
Hats, bazars and fairs Hats and bazars are 120, fair 5.
Main exports Paddy, jute, cotton, tobacco and ginger.
NGO activities Operationally important NGOs are brac, asa, CARE, rdrs, Grameen Krishi Foundation, RDSS, etc.
Health centres District sadar hospital 1, upazila health complex 5, TB hospital 1, TB clinic 1, leprosy hospital 3, railway hospital 1, upazila health and family planning centre 61, satellite clinic 15.