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Great Person

The mugshots, the haircuts and the fashion highs: three decades of Bill Gates

In 1981

In 1981, computers the size of fridges and banks of reel-to-reel computer tape lined the walls in the small offices of the Microsoft founders, Bill Gates (left) and Paul Allen, in Bellevue, Washington.

Bill Gates and Sun Micro Systems

Bill Gates watches fellow tech execs Scott McNealy, of Sun Micro
Systems (middle), and Jim Barksdale, of Netscape (right), during
anti-trust hearings before the Senate Judiciary Committee in 1998
(Larry Downing/Reuters)

One kinds of business policy

Bill & Melinda Gates

Bill Gates, who used his fortune to found the Bill & Melinda Gates
Foundation, with Nara Chandrababu Naidu, Chief Minister of Andhra
Pradesh, India, at the Shadnagar community health clinic in 2002 (Jeff

How Look Computer professionals:

The Microsoft top brass in June 2006, when Bill Gates revealed plans to
step down. Mr Gates is accompanied by (L-R) Craig Mundie, the chief
research and strategy officer, Ray Ozzie, the chief software architect
and Steve Ballmer, the chief executive officer (Reuters)

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Essential Photoshop Shortcuts

By LaurenMarie SEPTEMBER 28, 2007 – 9:00 AM
When you are working on a design, do you have to use the Tools Palette at all in Photoshop or have your fingers memorized the shortcuts?
Not using the Photoshop key commands is a sure way to slow yourself down; it’s frustrating to not be able to work as fast as your mind can think!
The Tools Palette
It is essential to learn the shortcuts for the tools you use most often. As I was writing this, it was very difficult for me to remember exactly which key I push to get these tools, my fingers just know what to do when my mind says “I need the _____ tool.” The following list is ordered the way they are on the Tools Palette: top to bottom, first the left column and then the right. The letter is the hotkey or shortcut, then I listed the tool name, other tools under the first one and then what the tools do.
• M=Marquee Tool, to make round, square or single row or column selections quickly
• L=Lasso Tool, also the Polygonal Lasso and Magnetic Lasso Tools, to make freehand selections, straight selections or selections that roughly go around the border of an object (best if the object is in high contrast to its background)
• C=Crop, to make the canvas of the image smaller or larger
• J=Healing Brush, to fix blotches, blemishes, scratches and other unwanted noise. Averages the color of the area being cloned and uses the texture of the target area
• S=Clone Stamp, also to fix unwanted noise, but this exactly clones the pixels from a target area
• E=Eraser Tool, use this tool sparingly because it complete deletes pixels. It is better to use a mask to hide unwanted areas of an image, because you never know when you’ll change your mind and want the whole thing back again!
• R=Blur Tool, also hidden under this tool are Smudge and Sharpen tools (you’ll rarely use Sharpen because it makes the image pixilated). The Blur Tool will give you a brush that blurs the pixels you “paint”
• A=Path Selection Tool (black arrow), also here is the Direct Selection Tool (white arrow). The black arrow will select an entire path for you to move around, white arrow will allow you to select specific anchor points on the path.
• P=Pen Tool, used to make paths and can be used in conjunction with the arrow tools above. It’s best to have previously selected the white arrow and then select the pen tool. That way, when you hit control (or command) you will have the features of the white arrow to move anchor points.
• N=Notes, I never use this tool, but here it is if you need the shortcut. Notes allow you to create tagged points on a document and you can either record audio or type the message.
• H=Hand Tool, most important tool next to the Move Tool, however, it’s best to not actually switch to this tool because it’s easily accessible when in most other tools by hitting the spacebar. Hold the spacebar down to toggle the hand tool and drag your image around. When you’re where you want to be, let up.
• V=Move Tool, allows you to select layers (objects) and move them around the canvas. This will probably be the tool you select most often so be sure to learn it!
• W=Magic Wand, similar to the lasso and marquee tools because it allows you to make selections.
• K=Slice Tool, is used for cutting up images for websites. You can cut up the images and then automatically save them all for web without having to go through and name each image.
• B=Brush, you’ll be using this quite often, too, but you’ll have to actually select it using B. The brush tool can be used for lots of stuff from actually painting, to hiding or revealing parts of a mask.
• Y=History Brush, honestly, I’ve never learned how to use this tool or the one under it, the Art History Tool. Have you learned to use it? Please explain it to us below!
• G=Gradient Tool, to create fades from one color (or transparency) to another. The default will be from foreground color to background color. You will usually need to configure the options for this tool each time you use it. A quick tip: if you click and hold shift while you drag, your gradient will be in perfect 45 (or 90) degree angles.
• O=Dodge/Burn Tools, the Sponge (saturation) Tool is also here. Dodge is used to lighten an area of an image and Burn will darken it. These terms are retained from photography darkrooms, where a photographer would reduce or increase the exposure of parts of the image during development.
• T=Text Tool, allows you to create new text boxes. You can either single click and start typing or draw a box for your text and type in that.
• U=Shape Tool, creates vector shapes. Default options are rectangle, rounded rectangle, ellipse, polygon line and custom shape. If you hold shift while in the rectangle, rounded rectangle, or ellipse tool you will get a perfect square or circle. The custom shape tool has many options for ornaments, stars, bursts, etc. You’ll find the various options up in the context sensitive toolbar on the top of the screen below the menus.
• I=Eyedropper Tool, allows you to select a color that you seen on screen. You can also toggle this tool from the Brush Tool (B) by pressing alt (option). One thing you may want to do is set the sample size of the Eyedropper to a 3x3 average, that way, you don’t have to select the exact pixel of the color you want, it takes a 3x3 square average sample. You can set this option when you have the Eyedropper Tool selected (not toggled). Go up to the context sensitive toolbar and find the Sample Size drop down menu. Change it from Point Sample (default) to 3 by 3 (or 5 by 5) Average.
• Z=Zoom Tool, this is another tool that you will use quite often, but like the Hand Tool, you don’t need to ever select it. It is available when you’re in most other tools by holding down the spacebar and control (command) keys for zooming in and the spacebar, control (command) and alt (option) keys to zoom out.
Shortcuts for Common Functions
This is a quick list of frequently used functions (should we call them FUFs?). There are shortcuts for almost every function in Photoshop, especially in CS2 and above, but these are the ones I find myself using the most.
• D Restore Default Colors (black foreground, white background)
• X Switch Foreground and Background colors, especially useful when painting or masking
• F Switch screen modes between window, full screen (not the same as maximize) with a grey background, and full screen with a black background (the menus on top are also gone in this view, giving you a little more screen real estate to work with)
• Ctrl+D Deselects the current selection
• Ctrl+Alt+I (CS2+) Image Size Dialog Box, in Photoshop CS and below, there is no shortcut set for this function, so you can set it yourself by going to the Edit menu and selecting Keyboard Shortcuts.
• Ctrl+Alt+C (CS2+) Canvas Size Dialog Box, also not set in CS and below.
• 0 through 9 Change opacity (of an art tool like the Brush Tool or, if you’re not in an art tool, it changes the selected layer’s opacity). 0 is 100%, 9 is 90%, etc. You can also press two numbers in rapid succession to get other opacities; pressing 1 and 5 quickly will get you 15% opacity.
• Ctrl+Alt+0 (that’s a zero) 100% Zoom of image size
• Ctrl+0 (also a zero) Image and document window as large as possible, but still fitting completely on screen
• Home jumps to the upper left corner of the canvas (useful when zoomed in close)
• End jumps to the lower right corner of the canvas
• Ctrl+Alt+Shift+N New Layer
• Ctrl+Shift+C Copy Merged, will copy everything from every visible layer within the selection.
One last helpful tip: while you have something selected, right click while in a selection tool (Marquee, Lasso, not Magic Wand) and a context sensitive menu allows you to quickly Select Inverse, Feather, Make a Work Path from Selection, and Transform Selection, among other useful options. The Magic Wand tool has different options.
And remember, you can always set your own shortcuts by going to the Edit menu and selecting Keyboard Shortcuts. The shortcuts are categorized by the menu the functions are in or the palette the tools are on.
List of shortcut keys
Shortcut Command How useful
Snapping Operations
Autodesk Maya
c Snap to curves + –
x Snap to grids + –
v Snap to points + –
j Move, Rotate, Scale Tool snapping + –
Shft+J Move, Rotate, Scale Tool relative snapping + –

Painting Operations
Autodesk Maya
Alt+f Flood with the current value + –
Alt+a Turn Show Wireframe on/off + –
Alt+c Turn Color Feedback on/off + –
Alt+r Toggle Reflection on/off + –
u+LMB Artisan Paint Operation marking menu + –
b Modify upper brush radius + –
Shft+B Modify lower brush radius + –
Ctrl+b Edit Paint Effects template brush settings + –
i Modify Artisan brush Stamp Depth + –
m Modify Max Displacement (Of Sculpt Surfaces and Sculpt Polygons Tool) + –
n Modify Value + –
/ Switch to pick colour mode + –
' Select cluster mode (Of Paint Weights Tool ) + –
8 Open Paint Effects panel + –
o+LMB Poly Brush Tool marking menu + –
o+MMB Poly UV Tool marking menu + –

Tumble, Track or Dolly
Autodesk Maya
Alt+LMB Tumble Tool + –
Alt+MMB Track Tool + –
Alt+RMB Dolly Tool + –

Autodesk Maya
4 Shading > Wireframe + –
5 Shaded display + –
6 Shaded and Textured display + –
7 Lighting > Use All Lights + –
d+LMB Display Quality marking menu + –
1 Low Quality Display setting + –
2 Medium Quality Display setting + –
3 High Quality Display setting + –

Displaying Objects (show, hide)
Autodesk Maya
Ctrl+h Display > Hide > Hide Selection + –
Ctrl+Shft+H Display > Show > Show Last Hidden + –
Alt+h Display > Hide > Hide Unselected Objects + –
Shft+I Show > Isolate Select > View Selected + –

Tool Operations
Autodesk Maya
Return Complete current tool + –
~ Abort current tool + –
Insert Enter tool Edit mode + –
Shft menu+Q Select Tool + –
Shft menu+Q+LMB Component marking + –
Alt+q Select tool + –
Alt+q+LMB Polygon marking menu + –
q+LMB Mask marking menu + –
w Move tool + –
w+LMB Move tool marking menu + –
e Rotate tool + –
e+LMB Rotate tool marking menu + –
r Scale tool + –
r+LMB Scale tool marking menu + –
t Show manipulator tool + –
y Select last used tool (Excluding Select, Move, Rotate and Scale) + –
j Snap Move, Rotate, Scale tool + –
= or + Increase manipulator size + –
- Decrease manipulator size + –

Animation Operations
Autodesk Maya
s Animate > Set key + –
i Insert Keys tool (for graph editor) + –
Shft+S+LMB Keyframe marking menu + –
Shft+S+MMB Tangent marking menu + –
Shft+E Set key for Rotate + –
Shft+R Ser key for Scale + –
Shft+W Set key for Translate + –
Alt+s Cycle handle stiky state (for IK handles) + –

Playback Control
Autodesk Maya
Alt+. Move forward one frame + –
Alt+, Move backward one frame + –
. Go to Next key + –
, Go to previous key + –
Alt+v Turn Playback on/off + –
Alt+Shft+v Go to Min Frame + –

Hotbox Display
Autodesk Maya
Space Hotbox + –
Alt+m Default Hotbox Style (Zones and Menus Rows) + –

Window and View Operations
Autodesk Maya
Crtl+a Toogle Attribute Editor and Channel Box + –
a Frame all in active panel + –
a+LMB History Operations marking menu + –
Shft+A Frame All in all views + –
f Frame selected in active panel + –
Shft+F Frame selected in all views + –
] Redo view change + –
[ Undo view change + –
` Set keyboard focus to command line + –
Alt+` Set keyboard focus to numeric input line + –
F1 Help > Contents and Search + –

Moving Selected Objects
Autodesk Maya
Alt+Up arrow Move up one pixel + –
Alt+Down arrow Move down one pixel + –
Alt+Left arrow Move left one pixel + –
Alt+Right arrow Move right one pixel + –

Traversing the Hierarchy
Autodesk Maya
Up arrow Walk up the current hierarchy + –
Down arrow Walk down current hierarchy + –
Left arrow Walk left current hierarchy + –
Right arrow Walk right current hierarchy + –

Modeling Operations
Autodesk Maya
Crtl+Up arrow Display coarser Sub-d level + –
Crtl+Down arrow Select/refine Sub-d component + –
Crtl+F9 Convert poly selection to Vertices + –
Crtl+F10 Convert poly selction to Edges + –
Crtl+F11 Covert poly selection to Faces + –
Crtl+F12 Convert poly selction to UVs + –

File Operations
Autodesk Maya
Ctrl+n File > New Scene + –
Ctrl+o File > Open Scene + –
Ctrl+s File > Save Scene + –
Ctrl+q File > Exit + –

Selecting Menus
Autodesk Maya
Ctrl+m Show/Hide main menu bar + –
Shft+m Show/Hide panel menu bar + –
h+LMB Menu Set marking menu + –
F2 Show Animationmenu set + –
F3 Show Modeling menu set + –
F4 Show Dynamics menu set + –
F5 Show Rendering menu set + –

Edit Operations
Autodesk Maya
z or Ctrl+z Edit > Undo + –
Shft+z Edit > Redo + –
g Edit > Repeat + –
Shft+G Repeat command at mouse position + –
Ctrl+d Edit > Duplicate + –
Shft+D Edit > Duplicate with Transform + –
Crtl+g Edit > Group + –
p Edit > Parent + –
Shft+P Edit > Unparent + –
Crtl+x Edit > Cut + –
Crtl+c Edit > Copy + –
Ctrl+v Edit > Paste + –

Selecting Objects and Components
Autodesk Maya
F8 Switching between Objevt and Component Editing + –
F9 Select Polygon and Subdivision Surface Vertices + –
F10 Select Polygon and Subdivision Surface Edges + –
F11 Select Polygon and Subdivision Surface Faces + –
F12 Select Polygon and Subdivision Surface UVs + –
Ctrl+i Select next intermediate onject + –
Alt+F9 Select Polygon Vertex/Faces + –
< Shrink polygon selection region + –
> Grow polygon selection region + –

GSP facilities in US

Bangladesh to keep enjoying GSP facilities in US
Foreign adviser says
Foreign Affairs Adviser Dr Iftekhar Ahmed Chowdhury yesterday said Bangladesh would "continue to enjoy the GSP facilities as before” in the United States.
The adviser said the news came to him as the US authorities informed the Bangladesh mission in Washington about the latest decision.
"For now, I can say that the continuation of GSP facilities is a good news for Bangladesh,” the adviser told reporters at the ministry. “We will continue to work diplomatically with our American friends for further extension.”
“In the meantime, we should emphasised workers' overall welfare, which will also improve our market access," the adviser said.
At the same time, he said, a review process initiated by a petition from AFL-CIO (American Federation of Labour and Congress of Industrial Organisations) in the US would be extended by another year. The federation is responsible to oversee if Bangladesh ensures rights of the labourers, especially who work in the country's specialised export processing zones.
The Generalised System of Preferences (GSP) is designed to promote economic growth in developing nations by giving preferential duty-free entry of their products to the US market.
Bangladesh gets duty-free access to the US market on certain export items, including garment products, under the facilities.
The US had earlier put conditions that Bangladesh would not get GSP facilities anymore if the government does not ensure workers' freedom of association or the right to collective bargaining in its EPZs.
The government has responded positively and initiated welfare associations for the EPZ workers.

Free registration for children

2nd Birth Registration Day Observed
Free registration for children until Dec 31
The government will extend the timeline for free birth registration for the children under 18 years of age to December 31 and set a fixed fee for registration of adults at Tk 50.
It will make a few corrections to some provisions of the Birth and Death Registration Act 2004 in order to bring the changes. The timeline for free birth registration ended on July 2.
LGRD and Cooperatives Adviser Mohammad Anwarul Iqbal said this yesterday at a ceremony for the observance of 2nd Birth Registration Day at Osmani Memorial Auditorium in the city.
Anwarul Iqbal said, “As some calls came for extending the timeline for free birth registration for all, the government will extend the timeline only for the children below 18 years and for adults the fee will be at a fixed rate of Tk 50.”
“The government will not change the law to extend the timeline, but will make a few corrections to some provisions of the Birth and Death Registration Act 2004 to make the changes,” said the adviser, adding that the government is going to create a database of information of birth registration and a software was developed as Birth Registration Information System (BRIS) that had already started working in the city corporation areas. People will be able to see the information in a website after a few days.
“A birth certificate serves as a legal age verification document, acknowledging the individual's existence and status before the law, thus realising every person's right to an identity. This birth registration certificate will enhance our vigilance to stop child trafficking, child marriage and abuse to them,” the adviser added.
The Birth Registration Day has been observed at the national level to create awareness among the people to fulfil the government's task of 100 percent birth registration within December 2008.
According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS), only one out of 10 children under 5 had been registered in 2006. A Recent report from the Local Government Division shows that 40 percent of the total population had received a birth certificate by the end of March 2008. The government's objective is to lift this figure substantially with the support from development partners such as Unicef and Plan Bangladesh.
According to the Act, birth certificates will be compulsory to obtain access to 16 essential services, including issuance of passports, marriage registration and admission to educational institutions.
Unicef Representative in Bangladesh David Bassiouni said, “This year Unicef is particularly focusing on vulnerable children such as children living on the streets, working children, children of sex workers, indigenous children and refugee and displaced children as they are more likely to be missed out. The absence of a birth certificate puts them at greater risk of discrimination, abuse and neglect” he added.
Presided over by Local Government Division Secretary Sheikh Khurshid Alam, the Birth Registration Day observance programme was attended by Plan Bangladesh Representative Saiful Islam, Joint Secretary and Project Director of the Birth and Death Registration Project AKM Saiful Islam Chowdhury and Dhaka City Corporation Chief Executive Officer Mohammad Alauddin.
Around 60 per cent people of the country, who failed to get their birth registered by July 2, will have to pay fines and fees for the registration purpose from Wednesday.
AKM Saiful Islam Chowdhury said this at a view exchange meeting with journalists at a city hotel on Wednesday, adding that a total of 5.87 crore (around 40 percent) people of the country till March 31 came under the birth registration project which is unsatisfactory.
The Birth and Death Registration Act 2004 entered into force in 2006, providing birth registration for the people born in Bangladesh and allowing them for free registration until July 2 this year.


Thousands trafficked into India for kidney sale:
Thursday, 19 June 2008
Organ-trafficking rackets smuggle thousands of poor men from Bangladesh and other South Asian countries into India every year to remove their kidneys for sale, speakers at a roundtable alleged Tuesday, reports
But a narrow definition of trafficking in a relevant SAARC convention prevents rescue and rehabilitation of the trafficked people.
"The SAARC convention on trafficking in persons does not recognise trafficking of males as trafficking," Nishat Chowdhry, a national programme officer of the International Organisation for Migration, told the roundtable in Dhaka. The SAARC convention has a restricted definition, she said.
The convention says trafficking means the moving, selling or buying of women and children for prostitution within and outside a country for monetary or other considerations with or without the consent of the person subjected to trafficking.
"Trafficking is an international or regional crime. There should be a regional or international mechanism to combat it," said Dr Mizanur Rahman, a Dhaka University teacher.
Thousands of Bangladeshis were trafficked to Valore of India and forced into "donating" their kidneys, according to the roundtable.
"One of the flaws of the SAARC convention is, there is no compliance mechanism for the member countries," said Rabab Fatima, IOM's South Asia representative.
She said there was no treaty body to review the convention from time to time.
"Bangladesh believes the definition of trafficking in the SAARC convention should be widened," said Abida Islam, a foreign ministry director.
She said the definition should be broadened gradually as it would be "difficult to implement the convention if the definition was widened abruptly".
The SAARC Convention on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Women and Children for Prostitution was signed in 2002.

AIDS in Sylhet!

71 people died of AIDS in Sylhet
Thursday, 19 June 2008
Speakers at a workshop Monday revealed that 71 people died of AIDS here so far and two others affected by it are now undergoing treatment, reports agency.
Padakkhep Manobik Unnayan Kendra, an NGO, has organized the advocacy workshop on ‘AIDS and Youth’ at the district council auditorium.
Additional Deputy Commissioner Shahidul Islam attended as chief guest in the workshop, which was chaired by Acting Civil Surgeon Dr Jalal Uddin Ahmed.
Speakers termed Sylhet as country’s “danger zone” saying that more people might be affected if necessary measures to check the disease are not taken immediately.

A School Teacher and her Daughter after HIV test(Positive)

HIV-positive young girl
Moni Shantibag.

Crime world

Crime world beckons 7 lakh slum kids
Around seven lakh children living in slums of the six metropolitan cities of the country are susceptible to a life of crime because of lack of any proper mechanisms to protect them.
In the absence of any social safety nets to guard their well-being, juveniles raised in slums and streets without proper care or guidance from parents are easily lured into committing criminal offences.
According to government estimates, seven lakh children are among the 50 lakh people -- a number estimated by a Centre for Urban Studies survey in 2005 -- residing in slums in six metropolitan cities, and their numbers are ever increasing.
In exchange for very small amounts of money, youngsters are being hired by gangsters to carry or use firearms or peddle drugs. These children don't know any better than falling into such traps, and where they understand the gravity of the jobs they are hired for an empty stomach often overrides considerations.
Eleven-year-old Shawon, not his real name, is a glaring example of how a juvenile growing up in a slum can slip into a life of crime. Only three months ago Shawon used to scavenge papers in Karwan Bazar area, but now he sells cannabis on the railway track in the same area under cover of the night.
“A woman I called aunt brought me into this business three months ago,” Shawon told The Daily Star.
He makes about Tk 150 a day selling drugs to support his crippled mother and younger sister. When asked about his father, Shawon's eyes sparkled in anger. First he said his father was dead.
A moment later he corrected himself and said, He is very much alive, he abandoned us and got married again so he is dead to us.”
Kafrul police arrested two juveniles about a month ago as they fled from the scene after hurling two homemade bombs towards a sweetmeat shop at Shewrapara.
The boys, aged around 12 and 14 years, said a local criminal had paid them Tk 100 each to explode the bombs in front of the shop to scare its owners into paying extortion money.
Poor children living in slums remain most vulnerable as they easily come into contact with narcotics traders and criminals who also live in slums. Many end up in a life of crime. Many top criminals of the country like Kala Jahangir, Killer Abbas, Freedom Sohel and Sweden Aslam got started in this way.
Dr Mehtab Khanam, professor of psychology department of Dhaka University, says juveniles can not apply moral values and so they work without reasoning and opportunists exploit them.
Dr Abdul Hakim Sarkar, a professor of the Institute of Social Welfare of Dhaka University, says the ever-increasing poverty is one of the chief reasons leading to juveniles' involvement in offences.
Poor parents are so busy earning a livelihood that they have no time to guide children, he said.
Dr Sarkar suggests that a comprehensive child policy, parenthood training and developing parental associations could help counter this situation.
The government or other social organisations do not have any particular statistics about how many juveniles are already involved in offences in the country or how many are exposed to potential involvement.
Dhaka Metropolitan Police prepared a list of 336 professional teenage offenders from records in its 33 police stations in 2004. Experts suspect that the actual number is much higher.
At least 235 non-government organisations work on child rights in the country, but no one works specifically to protect juveniles from a potential criminal life.
The Director of the Department of Social Services Habibur Rahman said that since poverty pushes juveniles to criminal activities, the department provides loans to the poor to help upgrade their financial condition.
Some NGOs also provide micro credit to the poor.
There are 84 government run institutions in the country, 50 Shishu Paribar, 25 Shishu Sadan, three Kishore Unnayan Kendra (KUK) and six safe homes, with a total capacity of accommodating 10,500 children, according to statistics of 2005.
The Shishu Paribar and Shishu Sadan centres are mainly for proper care and nursing of orphan or destitute children living there. The safe homes are for girls and are based in the divisional headquarters in the country. The KUKs are the remand homes for juvenile under-trial prisoners and convicts.
However, none of these homes come into the picture to protect poor children from their exposure to a criminal life.
Sarkar said juveniles from middle and upper class families usually get involved in offences due to spread of sky and cyber cultures. They try to be adventurous like the characters they watch on television.
“Children learn social norms and moral values from their guardians and peers, but nowadays they spend very little time with parents that they don't learn a lot of things,” Sarkar says.
He cites an example that children learn to respect rules from playing games as all games have certain rules, but nowadays there are hardly any playgrounds for children.
Sarkar also blames private tuition based education for the situation. This type of education makes children dependent on others and a dependent child does not learn to take his own responsibility, he says.
Children do not learn how to make sacrifices or accommodate others as they grow up amid a sense of selfish relationships, the professor points out.
Respecting others' interests and moral values are relatively absent in the present society, Dr Sarkar points out, “ So when any thing goes against their interest, children do not hesitate to commit a wrong.”
Shariful Islam

Syed Badrul Ahsan, about SSC results

Ground Realities
Of SSC results, of the generational torch . . .
Syed Badrul Ahsan
A thrillingly large number of young men and women, as we observed last week, have crossed the school leaving bar this year. The number of those who have emerged successful from their Secondary School Certificate examinations, we have known, is staggering. No fewer than 70.41 per cent of those appearing at the examinations have qualified for further studies at the college level. A significantly high number among them have scored what we now know as GPA-5. By all means that is a remarkable achievement and we are all happy because the students and their guardians and their teachers are happy.
When the young do well in academic pursuits, when through all the darkness around us there happens to be some light at the end of our long tunnel, we tell ourselves that our future is likely safe, that we have little to worry about.
And yet there are quite a few reasons for worry. And those reasons, just so you have not noticed, lie embedded in the manner in which the young, be they in school or in college, choose to pursue their studies these days. The alacrity with which tutors outside the classroom have taken charge of the young, the briskness with which parents in the urban centres of the country cough up money to have their children come in touch with what they think are the best teachers in town are perfect reasons for us to question the mode of education we appear to have developed in this country.
Again, that mode we speak of can be broken down into quite a few sub-modes, one being the system that is at work in the rural interior of the country. It is hardly surprising, and for some of us it may come as something rather startling, that under the umbrella of what passes for a system of education in Bangladesh today, we are clearly into the business of giving shape to an elitism that may be ignoring the needs of the villages.
We of course refer to the gap, a rather widening one, that segregates those young who go looking for education in their villages from those who pursue it in the cities. And the gap is quite telling. Even in a year when ecstasy underscores our celebrations of this year's SSC results, there is the disturbing truth of how badly the young in our village schools have fallen behind.
Most of the 30 percent or so students who were unable to leap across the school leaving bar this year inhabit villages. And many of the schools that recorded not a single instance of student success are located in our villages.
That is the unvarnished truth. The initiative for the future, it is clear, is slipping into the hands of a localised, small and self-contained urban class. Or perhaps the slip has occurred already. You notice the intake into the professions -- government, business firms, non-government bodies, universities -- and you realise with something of discomfiture that the vast majority of those coming into professional life, those with promise of a fast track rise, are from an essentially urban background.
There used to be a time when academic brilliance was a general feature in the lives of the village young. Poverty and hard work and driving ambition (and there was absolutely no question of private tutors marring the arrangement) were light unto the future. And that is how men made it to the Indian civil service (in the days before the vivisection of India) and then into the Central Superior Service of Pakistan.
Much a similar instance, though not all of it, characterised the Bangladesh Civil Service after 1971 (though excellence has by now taken a horrific slide). You name any illustrious individual from your parents' generation. Chances are you will trace the story of that man's life from humble beginnings in a rustic clime and go up all the way to his becoming part of a global stage.
But that is not how things happen any more. The old teachers who took keen and relentless pride in the business of enlightening the young in the villages are an extinct species. The partition of 1947 led, quite naturally, to an exodus of teachers, all from the Hindu community, to the other side of the bitter frontier. It happened again, in 1950. The residue, of good Muslim teachers, in time was lost to us through the simple rules of mortality.
Today, conditions have come to a pass where only a miracle can help us locate a man or a woman able to teach good, flawless English or mathematics in our village schools. Does it not make you wonder that a staggering 80 percent of those who could not make it at the SSC this year stumbled over English or mathematics or both? And why or how did that happen? The answer is not that these young people had only no private coaching of the kind their peers in the urban regions have had, but is also in the fact that few qualified teachers, those in command of their subjects, have made their way into their classrooms in recent years.
A drastic fall has been there in the quality of teaching. Then again, there have been conditions where teaching in crucial subjects has been conspicuous by its absence because there simply are no teachers to be had.
It all boils down to the question of a decline, a moral as well as cultural one. On a bigger perspective, what you have here is a society that is clearly and unashamedly turning its back on its villages, indeed on the great traditions that once went into the shaping of its social and cultural heritage.
Schools in the rural environment are losing out in every way. There are precious few schools with libraries left; the information technology which is fast taking over increasingly wider swathes of academic territory in the cities is yet to make any inroad in the schools dotting the dusty paths of our villages; the much vaunted progress in rural literacy is not walking but limping.
Add to that the many wrong turnings taken down the road, all per courtesy of anti-politics: the establishment of schools on partisan considerations, the peopling of school committees by men known for intellectual opacity or worldly banality. And do not forget the low pay and lower self-esteem of the teaching community. They have come all the way to the nation's capital, to ask for a raise; and they have been ignored, beaten and compelled to go back home with little to show for triumph.
You cannot wish away the feeling that the future of this country, like its past, is indelibly linked to its villages and hamlets. You may glorify your towns and cities; you can carouse and revel in the knowledge that your schools in the cities have been making quantum leaps in achieving spectacular academic results. But do not forget that the young man beside his father in the field and the young woman rationing the light from her lamp in the hut for reasons of austerity are the bearers of the generational torch.
The rickshawpuller's son who has done well at the SSC, through all his parents' pains and through all his silent tears, also deserves to be celebrated, to be reassured that the future is his to claim as well.
Scrape away this growing elitism from education and take it back to this entirety of a country. That way, there is a good chance you will be promoting social justice for all.
Syed Badrul Ahsan is Editor, Current Affairs, The Daily Star. He can be reached at:

1,687 women fall victim to violence

Wednesday, July 2, 2008 04:13 AM GMT+06:00
1,687 women fall victim to violence in 6 months
A total of 1,687 women fell victim to violence including fatwa (religious edict) in the country from January to June this year, according to a Bangladesh Mahila Parishad report based on news published in 14 daily newspapers.
The report says 329 women experienced violent torture while 73 of them were gang raped and 66 killed after rape.
A total of 49 women were victims of acid violence while 22 were burnt in fire.
The report also said 55 women were abducted and 125 women and children were trafficked during this period. Out of the trafficked, 10 were sold to brothels.
The number of women repressed for failure to pay dowry was 148 and 99 of them were killed for dowry.
A total of 27 domestic workers were tortured by their employers and 8 women were tortured by members of law enforcement agencies.
During the same period, 135 women committed suicide due to repression and 47 women and children died in mysterious circumstances.
The number of women fell victim to violence in June alone is 333. A total of 73 incidents of rape and 15 gang rapes were reported in the same month.
Meanwhile, Bangladesh National Women Lawyers' Association (BNWLA) reported 235 incidents of violence against women last month, based on reports published in 10 national dailies.

Telephone Number of Police Service

Directory: Police Service
Control Room 8616551-3, 9665407, 9661700

DMP Exchange 8322501-9

DMP Emergency/Enquery 999

Police Commissioner 8316248

DC, DB 9337362

Deputy Police Commissioner(Detective) 9335866, 9336494

Deputy Police Commissioner(East) 9568916

Deputy Police Commissioner(North) 9880072

Deputy Police Commissioner(South) 9332188

Deputy Police Commissioner(West) 9116824

Deputy Police Commissioner 9335866, 9336494

Head Quarter 9560661, 9561967

Karanigonj 7772300

Khilgaon 7219090

Kotowaly 7116255

Sutrapur 7116233

Lalbagh 246262,7316300

Demra 7516244

Ramna 9350468

Motijheel 8323008

Dhanmondi 509961, 509652

Shabuzbagh 7219344, 7219988

Uttara 8914126, 8914664

Tejgaon 9119444, 9119467

Gulshan 9880234, 9895826

Cantonment 8916277, 8913077

Mohammadpur 9119960, 9119943

Mirpur 9001000, 9001001

Pallabi 8015122

Narayangonj 9716999, 9716910

Police Commissioner 8316248

Al-Helal P. Box 410061-9

Azimpur Police Fari 509352

Babupara 955457

Banani Police Box 600458

DIG Headquarter 9568269, 9561773, 9568719

Farmagate P. Box 9119925

Gabtali Police Fari 9003791

Gulshan Fari 600539

Hazaribagh O.P 505977

Khilgaon Police Fari 413979

Mohakhali P. Box 600581

Mohammadpur Police Fari 9119461

Motijheel P. Box 413193

Nayatola Police Fari 409918

Nilkhet P. Fari 509214

Police Control Room 509922, 8616551-3

Police Head Quarter 9560661, 956796

Sadarghat P. Box 246277

Science Lab. P. Box 509252

Shajahanpur Police Fari 413937, 419344

Siddheswari Police Fari 413839

Tejgaon O.P 605274

Bandar P.S 722240, 725104

Chandgaon P.S 670040, 619922, 616119

Double Moring (P.S) 505103, 502040

Panchlaish (P.S) 681055, 652797

Phartali (P.S) 751335

Police Commissioner 624100

Police Contorl 632319, 633023, 619922, 722040, 630691

Police Station (Kotoali) 630521, 619922

Police Station (Bondor Thana) 502240, 506104

Police Station (Panchlish) 611055

ASP 761471

ASP, KMP 723028

Chif Metropolitan Magistrate 725272

DIG 761823

Doulatpur Thana 774458

Katwali Thana 723412

Khanjahan Ali Thana 785457

Khalishpur Thana 761536, 762091

Khulna Metroplitan Police Commissioner 720444

K.M.P Control Room 723029

K.M.P 720402

Metropolitan Headquarter & Police Commissioner 720444

Metropolitan Police Control Room 720220

Police Control Room 723029

Police Fari (Rupsha) 723501

Sonadanga Thana 761455, 761456

S.P 725377, 725243

Choto Boyra Bus Stand 761432

Fulbari Gate 774462, 774467

Gollamary Bridge 723329

Jora Gate 762026

Kali Bari, Boyra 761003

Kashipur 761461

Mohershawr Pasha 774097

Moilapota 724847

Nirala 720334

Peoples Gate 762098

Power House Mour 725348

River 723717

Rupsha 723501

Rupsha Feri Ghat 723346

Sadar Khulna 723738

Siromoni Doulotpur 785061

Trade School 762021

Tootpara 723015

Town Out Post Bniakhamar 723277

Feni Thana 748

Feni Thana 74831, 74883

Police (Betar) 74836

Police Control Room 74835

Police Super 74001, 73471

Cox`s Bazar
Police 248, 223

Police Enquiry 713433, 717333

Police Enquiry 3038

Police Enquiry 4641

Police Enquiry 4641

Police Enquiry 5066

Kotowaly Thana 5057, 5015

Police Enquiry 5053, 5012

Chachra Police Box 76128

DC Jessore 74002

DSB Office 73695

Police Control Room 75031

Police Office 76185

Police Wireless 76185

Puratan Cosba Police Box 76189

Sadar Police Box 76128

SP Jessore 74004

SP (Internal) 74152

Police Enquire 6067

Police Enquiry 3027, 4212, 3013

Police Control Room 242

Sadar Thana 228

Kotwali P.S 3090

Police Enquiry 2111

Police Enquiry 3018

Thana 2060

Civil Surgeon 6770

Police Control Room/Enquiry 2207

Police Station 6922

Bangladesh Area Codes (BTTB)

Directory: Bangladesh Area Codes (BTTB)
X should be added before area codes for NWD (Nation Wide Dialing) access
Area Code District Number Format
Alamdanga 7622 Chuadanga 2XX-3XX

Ashugonj 8528 Brahman Baria 2XX-3XX

Avaynagar (Noapara) 4222 Jessore 2XX-3XX

Badargonj 5222 Rangpur 2XX-3XX

Bagerhat 401 Bagerhat 2XXX-3XXX

Bandarban 361 Bandarban 2XX-5XX

Barguna 446 Barguna 2XX-8XX

Barisal 431 Barisal 5XXXX, 7XXXX

Bauphal 4422 Patuakhali 2XX-3XX

Bazitpur 9423 Kishoregonj 2XX-3XX

Bhairab 9424 Kishoregonj 3XX-7XX

Bhandaria 4623 Pirojpur 2XX-3XX

Bheramara 7022 Kushtia 2XX-3XX

Bhola 491 Bhola 55XXX,581XX,582XX

Bogra 51 Bogra 72XXX, 73XXX, 3XXX-6XXX

Brahmanbaria 851 Brahmanbaria 5XXXX

Chandpur 841 Chandpur 3XXX-5XXX

Chandraghona (Kaptai) 3529 Rangamati 2XX-3XX

Chhatak 8723 Sunamgonj 2XX-3XX

Chittagong 31 Chittagong 61XXXX, 62XXXX, 63XXXX, 65XXXX, 67XXXX, 68XXXX, 71XXXX, 72XXXX, 74XXXX, 75XXXX, 50XXXX

Chuadanga 761 Chuadanga 2XXX-4XXX

Comilla 81 Comilla 3XXX-6XXX, 8XXX-9XXX, 7XXXX

Companigon (Bashurhat) 3223 Noakhali 2XX-5XX

Cox's Bazar 341 Cox's Bazar 3XXX-4XXX

Daudkandi 8023 Comilla 4XX

Daulatpur 7023 Kushtia 2XX-3XX

Dhaka 2 Dhaka 8XXXXXX, 900XXXX, 901XXXX, 902XXXX, 911XXXX, 912XXXX, 913XXXX, 933XXXX, 934XXXX, 935XXXX, 955XXXX, 956XXXX, 966XXXX, 967XXXX, 971XXXX, 980XXXX, 987XXXX, 988XXXX, 7XXXXXX

Dinajpur 531 Dinajpur 3XXX-5XXX

Faridpur 631 Faridpur 2XXX-4XXX

Feni 331 Feni 7XXXX

Fulbari 5327 Dinajpur 2XX-3XX

Gaibandha 541 Gaibandha 3XX-9XX

Galachipa 4424 Patuakhali 2XX-4Xx

Gazipur 681 Gazipur 5XXXX

Ghatail 9225 Tangail 2XX-3XX

Gopalgonj 423 Gopalgonj 55XXX, 581XX, 582XX, 591XX, 592XX

Hajigonj 8424 Chandpur 2XX-3XX

Hatiya (Oshkhali) 3224 Noakhali 2XX-3XX

Hobigonj 831 Hobigonj 5XXXX

Ishwardi 732 Pabna 3XX-6XX

Jamalpur 981 Jamalpur 2XXX-3XXX

Jessore 421 Jessore 7XXXX, 3XXX-6XXX

Jhalokathhi 496 Jhalokathhi 2XX-9XX

Jhenaidah 451 Jhenaidah 2XXX-3XXX

Jhikargacha 4225 Jessore 2XX-3XX

Joypurhat 571 Joypurhat 2XX-8XX

Kalaroa 4724 Satkhira 2XX-4XX

Khagrachhari 371 Khagrachari 6XX-9XX

Khepupara 4425 Patuakhali 2XX-3XX

Khulna 41 Khulna 72XXXX, 73XXXX, 76XXXX, 77XXXX, 78XXXX

Kishoregonj 941 Kishoregonj 5XXXX

Kurigram 581 Kurigram 3XX-8XX

Kustia 71 Kustia 5XXXX, 7XXXX

Laksham (Daulatgonj) 8032 Comilla 2XX-5XX

Lakshmipur 381 Lakshmipur 2XX-6XX

Lalmonirhat 591 Lalmonirhat 2XX-3XX

Madaripur 661 Madaripur 5XXXX

Magura 611 Magura 2XXX

Manikgonj 651 Manikgonj 2XX-7XX

Mathabdi 6251 Narsingdi 2XX-5XX

Meherpur 791 Meherpur 2XX-5XX

Moheshkhali 3424 Cox’s bazar 2XX-3XX

Mongla 402 Bagerhat 2XX-5XX

Mongla New Port 4031 Bagerhat 2XX-3XX

Moulavibazar 861 Moul. bazar 5XXXX

Muktagacha 9028 Mymensingh 2XX-3XX

Muladi 4326 Barisal 2XX-4XX

Munshigonj 691 Munshigonj 2XXX-3XXX

Mymensingh 91 Mymensingh 5XXXX

Nabinagar 8525 B. baria 2XX-3XX

Naogaon 741 Naogaon 5XXXX

Narail 481 Narail 2XX-5XX

Narsingdi 621 Narsingdi 2XXX-3XXX

Natore 771 Natore 2XXX, 6XXX

Nawabgonj (Chapai) 781 Nawabgonj (Chapai) 5XXXX

Netrokona 951 Netrokona 2XX-8XX

Nilphamari 551 Nilphamari 2XX-7XX

Noakhali 321 Noakhali 3XXX-6XXX

Pabna 731 Pabna 4XXX-6XXX

Paikgacha 4027 Khulna 3XX-4XX

Palash (Ghorashal) 6254 Narsingdi 2XX-3XX

Panchagar 562 Panchagar 2XX-5XX

Parbatipur 5334 Dinajpur 2XX-3XX

Patuakhali 441 Patuakhali 2XXX

Perojpur 461 Perojpur 2XX-5XX

Potiya 3035 Chittagong 2XX-5XX

Rajbari 641 Rajbari 2XX-8XX

Rajshahi 721 Rajshahi 7XXXXX

Ramgoti (Char Alexander) 3823 Lakshmipur 2XX-3XX

Rangamati 351 Rangamati 2XXX-3XXX

Rangpur 521 Rangpur 2XXX-5XXX

Sarsha (Benapol) 4228 Jessore 2XX-5XX

Satkania 3036 Chittagong 2XX-3XX

Satkhira 471 Satkhira 2XXX-3XXX

Savar 2 Dhaka 771XXXX

Shariatpur 601 Shariatpur 554XX-559XX, 581XX, 582XX, 591XX, 592XX

Sherpur 931 Sherpur 2XX-9XX

Sirajgonj 751 Sirajgonj 7XXXX

Sitakundu (Barabkundu) 3028 Chittagong 2XX-3XX

Srimangol 8626 Moul. bazar 2XX-5XX

Sunamgonj 871 Sunamgonj 55XXX, 561XX, 562XX, 581XX, 582XX

Syedpur 552 Nilphamari 20XX-26XX

Sylhet 821 Sylhet 7XXXXX

Tangail 921 Tangail 5XXXX

Thakurgaon 561 Thakurgaon 5XXXX

Ukhia 3427 Cox’s bazar 2XX-3XX

List of the keyboard shortcuts for Word 2000

Select Text and Graphics in a Table:
Select the next cell's contents TAB
Select the preceding cell's contents SHIFT+TAB
Extend a selection to adjacent cells Hold down SHIFT and press
an arrow key repeatedly
Select a column Click in the column's top
or bottom cell. Hold down
SHIFT and press the UP
Extend a selection (or block) CTRL+SHIFT+F8, and then
use the arrow keys; press
ESC to cancel selection
Reduce the selection size SHIFT+F8
Select an entire table ALT+5 on the numeric
keypad (with NUM LOCK

Extend a Selection: Turn extend mode on F8
Select the nearest character F8, and then press LEFT
Increase the size of a selection F8 (press once to select
a word, twice to select a
sentence, and so forth)
Reduce the size of a selection SHIFT+F8
Turn extend mode off ESC

Move the Insertion Point: One character to the left LEFT ARROW
One character to the right RIGHT ARROW
One word to the left CTRL+LEFT ARROW
One word to the right CTRL+RIGHT ARROW
One paragraph up CTRL+UP ARROW
One paragraph down CTRL+DOWN ARROW
One cell to the left (in a table) SHIFT+TAB
One cell to the right (in a table) TAB
Up one line UP ARROW
Down one line DOWN ARROW
To the end of a line END
To the beginning of a line HOME
To the top of the window ALT+CTRL+PAGE UP
To the end of the window ALT+CTRL+PAGE DOWN
Up one screen (scrolling) PAGE UP
Down one screen (scrolling) PAGE DOWN
To the top of the next page CTRL+PAGE DOWN
To the top of the previous page CTRL+PAGE UP
To the end of a document CTRL+END
To the beginning of a document CTRL+HOME
To a previous revision SHIFT+F5
To the location of the insertion point when
the document was last closed SHIFT+F5

Move Around in a Table: Next cell in a row TAB
Previous cell in a row SHIFT+TAB
First cell in a row ALT+HOME
Last cell in a row ALT+END
First cell in a column ALT+PAGE UP
Last cell in a column ALT+PAGE DOWN
Previous row UP ARROW

Insert Paragraphs and Tab Characters in a Table: New paragraphs in a cell ENTER
Tab characters in a cell CTRL+TAB

Keys for Reviewing Documents
Insert a comment ALT+CTRL+M
Turn revision marks on or off CTRL+SHIFT+E
Go to the beginning of a comment CTRL+HOME
Go to the end of a comment CTRL+END

Keys for Performing a Mail Merge
Preview a mail merge ALT+SHIFT+K
Merge a document ALT+SHIFT+N
Print the merged document ALT+SHIFT+M
Edit a mail-merge data document ALT+SHIFT+E
Insert a merge field ALT+SHIFT+F

Keys for Printing and Previewing Documents
Print a document CTRL+P
Switch to Print Preview ALT+CTRL+I
Move around the preview page when zoomed in Arrow keys
Move by one preview page when zoomed out PAGE UP or PAGE DOWN
Move to the first preview page when zoomed out CTRL+HOME
Move to the last preview page when zoomed out CTRL+END

Keys for Working with Fields
An empty field CTRL+F9

Update linked information in a Word
source document CTRL+SHIFT+F7
Update selected fields F9
Unlink a field CTRL+SHIFT+F9

Keys for Working with a Document Outline
Promote a paragraph ALT+SHIFT+LEFT ARROW
Demote a paragraph ALT+SHIFT+RIGHT ARROW
Demote to body text CTRL+SHIFT+N
Move selected paragraphs up ALT+SHIFT+UP ARROW
Move selected paragraphs down ALT+SHIFT+DOWN ARROW
Expand text under a heading ALT+SHIFT+PLUS SIGN
Collapse text under a heading ALT+SHIFT+MINUS SIGN
Expand or collapse all text or headings ALT+SHIFT+A or the
asterisk (*) key on the
numeric keypad
Hide or display character formatting The slash (/) key on the
numeric keypad
Show the first line of body text
or all body text ALT+SHIFT+L
Show all headings with the Heading 1 style ALT+SHIFT+1
Show all headings up to Heading n ALT+SHIFT+n

Keys for Menus
Show the shortcut menu SHIFT+F10
Make the menu bar active F10
Show the program icon menu
(on the program title bar) ALT+SPACEBAR
Select the next or previous command
on the menu or submenu DOWN ARROW or UP ARROW
(with the menu or submenu
Select the menu to the left or right; or,
with a submenu visible, switch between
the main menu and the submenu LEFT ARROW or RIGHT ARROW
Select the first or last command on the menu
or submenu HOME or END
Close the visible menu
and submenu at the same time ALT
Close the visible menu; or, with a
submenu visible, close the submenu only ESC

TIP: You can select any menu command on the menu bar or on a visible toolbar with the keyboard. Press ALT to select the menu bar. (To then select a toolbar, press CTRL+TAB; repeat until the toolbar you want is selected.) Press the letter that is underlined in the menu name that contains the command you want. In the menu that appears, press the letter underlined in the command name that you want.

NOTE: The following shortcuts are not in Help. Remove items from menu (MRU, commands, etc.) CTRL+ALT+Hyphen (-)
Pointer turns to minus sign when keys are
pressed, then open menu and click item to
be removed.
Shortcut method for customizing keyboard
settings (Macintosh) CTRL+ALT+NUM PLUS
Plus (+) key on the
numeric keypad.

Keys for Toolbars
Make the menu bar active F10
Select the next or previous toolbar CTRL+TAB or
Select the next or previous button
or menu on the toolbar TAB or SHIFT+TAB (when a
toolbar is active)
Open the menu ENTER (when a menu on a
toolbar is selected)
Perform the action assigned to a button ENTER (when a button is
Enter text in a text box ENTER (when the text box
is selected)

Keys for Windows and Dialog Boxes
Switch to the next program ALT+TAB
Switch to the previous program ALT+SHIFT+TAB
Show the Windows Start menu CTRL+ESC
Close the active document window CTRL+W
Restore the active document window CTRL+F5
Switch to the next document window CTRL+F6
Switch to the previous document window CTRL+SHIFT+F6
Carry out the Move command
(document icon menu, menu bar) CTRL+F7
Carry out the Size command
(document icon menu, menu bar) CTRL+F8
Maximize the document window CTRL+F10
Select a folder in the Open
or Save As dialog box (File menu) ALT+0 to select the
folder list; arrow keys
to select a folder
Choose a toolbar button in the Open
or Save As dialog box (File menu) ALT+number (1 is the
left most button, 2 is
the next, and so on)
Update the files visible in the Open
or Save As dialog box (File menu) F5

Switch to the next tab in a dialog box CTRL+TAB or CTRL+PAGE
Switch to the previous tab in a dialog box CTRL+SHIFT+TAB or
Move to the next option or option group TAB
Move to the previous option or option group SHIFT+TAB
Move between options in the selected drop-down
list box or between some options
in a group of options Arrow keys
Perform the action assigned to the selected
button; select or clear the check box SPACEBAR
Move to the option by the first letter in the
option name in a drop-down list box Letter key for the first
letter in the option name
you want (when a drop-
down list box is
Select the option or select or clear the
check box by the letter underlined
in the option name ALT+letter key
Open a drop-down list box ALT+DOWN ARROW (when a
drop-down list box is
Close a drop-down list box ESC (when a drop-down
list box is selected)
Perform the action assigned to the default
button in the dialog box ENTER
Cancel the command and close the dialog box ESC

Move to the beginning of the entry HOME
Move to the end of the entry END
Move one character to the left or right LEFT ARROW or
Move one word to the left or right CTRL+LEFT ARROW or
Select from the insertion point to the
beginning of the entry SHIFT+HOME
Select from the insertion point to the end
of the entry SHIFT+END
Select or deselect one character to the left SHIFT+LEFT ARROW
Select or deselect one character to the right SHIFT+RIGHT ARROW
Select or deselect one word to the left CTRL+SHIFT+LEFT ARROW
Select or deselect one word to the right CTRL+SHIFT+RIGHT ARROW

Keys for Working with Web Pages
Insert a hyperlink CTRL+K
Go back one page ALT+LEFT ARROW
Go forward one page ALT+RIGHT ARROW
Refresh F9

Keys for Working with Cross-References, Footnotes, and Endnotes
Mark a table of contents entry ALT+SHIFT+O
Mark a table of authorities entry ALT+SHIFT+I
Mark an index entry ALT+SHIFT+X
Insert a footnote ALT+CTRL+F
Insert an endnote ALT+CTRL+D

Keys for Using the Office Assistant
Make the Office Assistant balloon active ALT+F6
Select a Help topic from the topics the
Office Assistant displays ALT+number (1 is the
first topic, 2 is the
second, and so on)

See more Help topics ALT+DOWN ARROW
See previous Help topics ALT+UP ARROW
Close an Office Assistant message ESC
Get Help from the Office Assistant F1
Display the next tip ALT+N
Display the previous tip ALT+B
Close tips ESC
Show or hide the Office Assistant in a wizard TAB to select the Office
Assistant button;
SPACEBAR to show the
Assistant or turn off
Help with the wizard

For more information about keyboard shortcuts:

List of the keyboard shortcuts for Word 2000

Select Text and Graphics:

One character to the right SHIFT+RIGHT ARROW
One character to the left SHIFT+LEFT ARROW
To the end of a word CTRL+SHIFT+RIGHT ARROW
To the beginning of a word CTRL+SHIFT+LEFT ARROW
To the end of a line SHIFT+END
To the beginning of a line SHIFT+HOME
One line down SHIFT+DOWN ARROW
One line up SHIFT+UP ARROW
To the end of a paragraph CTRL+SHIFT+DOWN ARROW
To the beginning of a paragraph CTRL+SHIFT+UP ARROW
One screen down SHIFT+PAGE DOWN
One screen up SHIFT+PAGE UP
To the end of a window ALT+CTRL+PAGE DOWN
To the beginning of a document CTRL+SHIFT+HOME
To include the entire document CTRL+A
To a vertical block of text CTRL+SHIFT+F8, and then
use the arrow keys; press
ESC to cancel selection
To a specific location in a document F8+arrow keys; press ESC
to cancel selection mode

List of the keyboard shortcuts for Word 2000

Insert Special Characters:
A field CTRL+F9
An AutoText entry ENTER (after typing the
first few characters of
the AutoText entry name
and when the ScreenTip
A line break SHIFT+ENTER
A page break CTRL+ENTER
A column break CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER
An optional hyphen CTRL+HYPHEN
A non-breaking hyphen CTRL+SHIFT+HYPHEN
A non-breaking space CTRL+SHIFT+SPACEBAR
The copyright symbol ALT+CTRL+C
The registered trademark symbol ALT+CTRL+R
The trademark symbol ALT+CTRL+T
The euro symbol ALT+CTRL+E

List of the keyboard shortcuts for Word 2000

Keys for Editing and Moving Text and Graphics
Delete Text and Graphics:
Delete one character to the left BACKSPACE
Delete one word to the left CTRL+BACKSPACE
Delete one character to the right DELETE
Delete one word to the right CTRL+DELETE
Cut selected text to the Clipboard CTRL+X
Undo the last action CTRL+Z
Cut to the Spike CTRL+F3

Copy and Move Text and Graphics:
Copy text or graphics CTRL+C
Display the Clipboard CTRL+C, CTRL+C
Move text or graphics F2 (then move the
insertion point and
press ENTER)
Create AutoText ALT+F3
Paste the Clipboard contents CTRL+V
Paste the Spike contents CTRL+SHIFT+F3
Copy the header or footer used in the
previous section of the document ALT+SHIFT+R

List of the keyboard shortcuts for Word 2000

Format Paragraphs: Single-space lines CTRL+1
Double-space lines CTRL+2
Set 1.5-line spacing CTRL+5
Add one-line spacing preceding a paragraph CTRL+0 (zero)
Remove one-line spacing preceding a paragraph CTRL+0 (zero)

Center a paragraph CTRL+E
Justify a paragraph CTRL+J
Left-align a paragraph CTRL+L
Right-align a paragraph CTRL+R
Indent a paragraph from the left CTRL+M
Remove a paragraph indent from the left CTRL+SHIFT+M
Create a hanging indent CTRL+T
Reduce a hanging indent CTRL+SHIFT+T
Remove paragraph formatting CTRL+Q

Apply a style CTRL+SHIFT+S
Start AutoFormat ALT+CTRL+K
Apply the Normal style CTRL+SHIFT+N
Apply the Heading 1 style ALT+CTRL+1
Apply the Heading 2 style ALT+CTRL+2
Apply the Heading 3 style ALT+CTRL+3
Apply the List style CTRL+SHIFT+L

List of the keyboard shortcuts for Word 2000

Keys for Formatting Characters and Paragraphs
Format Characters: Change the font CTRL+SHIFT+F
Change the font size CTRL+SHIFT+P
Increase the font size CTRL+SHIFT+>
Decrease the font size CTRL+SHIFT+<
Increase the font size by 1 point CTRL+]
Decrease the font size by 1 point CTRL+[

Change the formatting of characters
(Font command, Format menu) CTRL+D
Change the case of letters SHIFT+F3
Format letters as all capitals CTRL+SHIFT+A
Apply bold formatting CTRL+B
Apply an underline CTRL+U
Underline words but not spaces CTRL+SHIFT+W
Double-underline text CTRL+SHIFT+D
Apply hidden text formatting CTRL+SHIFT+H
Apply italic formatting CTRL+I
Format letters as small capitals CTRL+SHIFT+K
Apply subscript formatting
(automatic spacing) CTRL+EQUAL SIGN
Apply superscript formatting
(automatic spacing) CTRL+SHIFT+PLUS SIGN
Remove manual character formatting CTRL+SPACEBAR
Change the selection to Symbol font CTRL+SHIFT+Q

Display non-printing characters CTRL+SHIFT+* (asterisk)
Review text formatting SHIFT+F1 (then click the
text whose formatting you
want to review)
Copy formats CTRL+SHIFT+C
Paste formats CTRL+SHIFT+V

List of the keyboard shortcuts for Word 2000

Keys for Working with Documents
Create a new document CTRL+N
Open a document CTRL+O
Close a document CTRL+W
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Police officer charged with theft
Sunday, 29 June 2008
The police Friday received a complaint against a police officer of stealing a mobile phone set from a Thai citizen at Zia International Airport, Airport Police Station chief Ruhul Amin said.
The complainant is Piath Sarapak de Costa.
Airport immigration officer Nazir Hossain Dewan told that de Costa and police officer Md Mohiuddin Faruque, both coming from Thailand by a Thai Airways flight, had quarrelled over the 'theft'.
An intelligence officer said the Thai woman had accused Mohiuddin of stealing the phone set and slapped Mohiuddin who had been claiming himself to be a police officer.
Airport officials intervened and Mohiuddin was made to give the woman a mobile phone set from his pocket.
Mohiuddin, an assistant superintendent of police working at the National Central Bureau at the Police Headquarters, were returning from an Interpol seminar in Thailand.
Airport police released him after interrogation, Nazir Hossain said.
De Costa had come to Dhaka with her Bangladeshi spouse.
Contacted by, acting additional inspector general of police Shah Jamal Raj denied the allegation of theft against the police officer.
He said the accused officer was not on the scene at the time of the incident

Supersize solar power

Parabolic troughs, one of which is shown here, have been around for 25 years, and the technology will be around for at least another 25.
Parabolic troughs reflect sunlight to heat liquid carried through a tube above the troughs. That liquid is converted to steam, which drives a traditional electricity turbine.
One solar thermal power plant developer filed for bankruptcy in the early 1990s. But the technology is making a serious comeback. Building a solar plant in Arizona is cost-effective compared with a natural gas plant, said David Jallo, project head for the 280-megawatt Solana project at Arizona Public Service. At a recent Ceres conference, Jallo attributed this to solar costs going down, while costs of natural gas plants are going up.
These concentrating solar power plants are best suited for desert areas, like the southwestern U.S. and parts of Spain.
Credit: Abengoa

First look at the Earth from outer space

From the first look at the Earth from outer space, NASA has been watching our planet and how man has affected it. For Earth Day, NASA has compiled some of its most breathtaking views of Earth, including some "firsts," natural and man-made disasters, and out-of-this-world sights.

On April 1, 1960, the weather satellite Tiros-1 took its first image of Earth.


Expedition Everest, as seen in the new Google Earth-Walt Disney World 3D initiative.

Credit: Google Earth

Mountain Railroad

The Big Thunder Mountain Railroad, as seen in Google Earth.

Rangpur District

The district has 3 municipalities, namely, Rangpur Main (Sadar), Badarganj, and Haragach, and eight Upazilas, namely:
Rangpur Sadar

Rangpur town, covering an area of around 43 square kilometers, lies on the bank of the Little Ghaghat River, and was turned into a municipality back in 1869. The population of the Rangpur municipality as of 2006 is 251,699, with 52% male and 48% female, and the literacy rate is 54.6%.
Rangpur (Town) stands on the bank of the river Ghagat. It consists of 15 wards and 109 mahallas. The town was turned into a municipality in 1869. It has an area of 42.57 sq km. The population of the municipality is 251699; male 52.31%, female 47.69%. The density of population is 5913 per sq km. Literacy rate among the town people is 54.6%.
Administration The district consists of three municipalities, eight upazilas, 33 wards, 84 union parishads, 2151 mouzas and 1519 villages 203 mahallas. The upazilas are badarganj, gangachara, kaunia, rangpur sadar, mithapukur, pirgachha, pirganj and taraganj; the municipalities are Rangpur Sadar, Badarganj and Kaunia.
Archaeological heritage and relics Tajhat Rajbari, Keramatia Mosque, Dimlaraj Kali Mandir, Sree Sree Karunamaye Kali Mandir, Rangpur Museum, Rangpur Town Hall, Rangpur Public Library, Pareshnath Mandir at Mahiganj, tomb of the noted Islamic thinker Maulana Keramat Ali Jainpuri, tomb of Shah Jalal Bokheri at Mahiganj, tomb of Ismail Ghazi at Kataduar, carmichael college Building, home stead of roquiah sakhawat hossain at Pairabandh, Zila Parishad Building, Takka Mosque at Latifpur (Mughal period, Mithapukur upazila), three domed Jami Mosque at Mithapukur (Mughal period), four domed Taraganj Mosque, nine domed Radhanagar (Badarganj upazila) Mosque (Mughal period), tomb of Kutub Shah at Kutubpur, Vhim Garh at Manshinghpur (Badarganj upazila), Zamindar Bari at Roypur (Pirganj upazila), remnants of the palace of Raja Nilambar at Patgram (Pirganj upazila), Hari Mandir at Chandan Hat (Gangachara upazila) and Mitha Pukur (excavated during the Mughal period).
Historical events Mansingh, commander of Emperor Akbar, conquered part of Rangpur in 1575. Rangpur came completely under the Mughal empire in 1686. Mughalbasa and Mughalhat of Kurigram district still bear marks of the Mughal rule in the region. During the Mughal rule Rangpur was under the sarker of Ghoraghat. Rangapur Ghoraghat has been mentioned in the Riyaz-us-Salatin. During the early period of the company rule fakir-sannyasi resistance and peasant rebellion were held in Rangpur.
Marks of the War of Liberation Mass killing site: Dahiganj Crematory, eastern side of the river Ghagat, Balar Dighi (near cantonment), Lahirir Hat (adjacent to Badarganj Road), place adjacent to Damdama Bridge (Mithapukur), Sahebganj, Nandiganj, Jharuar Beel (Badarganj), Damdama Bazar, back yard of the Jhenuk Cinema Hall (Badarganj); mass grave: Damdama Bridge, Damdama Bazar (Mithapukur), Angrar Bridge, Madarganj Bazar (Pirganj), Nandiganj (Rangpur Sadar).
Population 2534365; male 50.92%, female 49.08%; Muslim 89.60%, Hindu 9.59% and others 0.56%; ethnic nationals: Santal and Orao.
Religious institutions Mosque 2911, temple 377, church 17, Buddhist vihara 1, tomb 28 and sacred place 8, most noted of which are Mithapukur Jami Mosque, Phulchawki Mosque, Takka Mosque, Khalaspir Hat Jami Mosque, Hatibandha Mosque, Sena Nagar Jami Mosque (Taraganj upazila), Kazipara Jami Mosque, Taraganj Mosque, Mandir at village Aladipur (Mithapukur upazila), Baldi Pukur Church (Mithapukur upazila), Benu Ban Buddhist Vihara (Mithapukur upazila), tombs of Maulana Keramat Ali Jainpuri, Pagla Pir, Panch Pir (Rangpur Sadar), Shah Ismail Ghazi (Pirganj upazila).
Literacy and educational institutions Average literacy 26.7%; male 33.5% and female 19.4%. Educational institutions: university college 1, college 64, medical college 1, technical college 1, teacher's training college 3, cadet college 1, polytechnic institute 1, vocational institute 1, law college 1, homeopath college 1, music school 1, high school 282, junior high school 38, madrasa 370, government primary school 722, non-government primary school 444, kindergarten 20, satellite school 44 and NGO operated school 193 and community school 20.
Locally published newspapers and periodicals Dabanal (1980, Juger Alo (1992), Dainik Paribesh (1994), Dainik Rangpur (1997), Weekly Atal (1991), Rangpur Barta (1996), Weekly Bajrakantha (Pirganj); extinct- Rangapur Bartabaha (1847), Rangapur Dik Prakash (1861), Rangapur Darpan (1907), Uttar Bangla (1960), Pravati (1955).
Cultural organisations Club 277, public library 12, cinema hall 17, theatre group 14, theatre stage 3, museum 1 and literary society 10.
Main occupations Agriculture 40.26%, agricultural labourer 28.01%, wage labourer 4.88%, commerce 10.12%, service 5.56%, transport 2.11% and others 9.06%.
Land use Total cultivable land 170113.36 hectares; single crop 16.89%, double crop 63.15% and treble crop land 19.96%; land under irrigation 76.80%.
Land control Among the peasants, 45% are landless, 30% small, 20% intermediate and 5% rich; cultivable land per head 0.06 hectare.
Value of land The market value of the land of the first grade is Tk. 6500 per 0.01 hectare.
Main crops Paddy, jute, wheat, potato, onion, garlic, ginger, chilli and tobacco.
Extinct or nearly extinct crops Linseed, sesame, indigo, kaun, aus paddy and arahar.
Main fruits Mango, jackfruit, black berry, papaya and banana.
Fisheries, dairies, poultries Poultry 263, fishery 134, dairy 78, nursery 7 and hatchery 30.
Communication facilities Roads: pucca 570 km, semi pucca 109 km and mud road 4101 km; railways 71 km; waterways 30 nautical mile; airport 1.
Traditional transport Palanquin (extinct), horse carriage and bullock cart (nearly extinct), boat.
Manufactories Sugar mill, distilleries, rice, flour mill, saw mill, ice factory, oil mill, match factory, bidi factory, iron works, cold storage, printing press, lathe machine and welding.
Cottage industries Weaving, bamboo work, goldsmith, blacksmith, potteries, wood work, tailoring and bidi.
Hats, bazars and fairs Hats and bazars are 155, noted fairs are Rath Mela at Mahiganj, Baruni Mela (Badarganj), Gopinathpur Mela (Badarganj).
Main exports Paddy, jute, wheat, sugarcane, ginger, tobacco, mango and vegetables.
NGO activities Operationally important NGOs are brac, asa, grameen bank, CARE, RDRS, RDSS, proshika, Grameen Krishi Foundation, thengamara mahila sabuj sangha, Gram Bikash.
Health centres Medical college hospital 1, zila sadar hospital 1, TB hospital 1, TB clinic 1, eye hospital 1, family planning centre 80, union health centre 30, charitable dispensary 12, municipal medical centre 1, maternity and child welfare centre 1, satellite clinic 40.

Tajhat is a historical place of Bangladesh, located near Lalbagh, Rangpur. It has a nice Jamidarbari (Palace) which in 2005 was turned into a museum. This museum is about 10 mins drive from Rangpur town, near Lalbagh. The Museum was inaugurated on March 20, 2005, by the Government of Bangladesh Minister for Cultural Affairs, Begum Selima Rahman and Secretary Mr. Mahmudul Masud. Dr. Alain Labrique of the Johns Hopkins University also made some invited remarks.
The palace in Tajhat, commonly known as Tajhat Rajbari was built by Maharaja Kumar Gopal Lal Roy in the beginning of the 20th century. He was a descendent of a Hindu khatari who emigrated from Punjab. He was a jeweler by profession. It is believed that from the conspicuous appearance of his Taj or jeweled crown his estate derived the name of Tajhat. From the name of his estate, the area is known as Tajhat.
Just south of the city of Rangpur lies the Tajhat, a former "rajbari" or zamindar's palace. After the end of the British Raj, the building was abandoned and decayed rapidly, although it was used for a few years as a courthouse during the 1980s. In the year 2004, it was largely restored and turned into a museum with ancient inscriptions, art and coins from the area on display.
RDRS (Rangpur and Dinajpur Rural Service) Bangladesh [4], an NGO in northwest Bangladesh, has a large office and guesthouse/convention center in the town of Rangpur.

Rokeya memorial in pairabondhA museum and women's training centre was established in Pairabondh, the birth place of famous Begum Rokeya. It is half an hour drive away from Rangpur city. Apart from the Tajbari museum there is another museum at the heart of the town. The town is known as Green town for its beautiful garden and green park throughout the town. It has a District magistrate office where the great Social Reformer Rammohan Roy served for long time. Nowadays there are lots of market places all through the city. Carmichael College, built during the Raj era, is located in Rangpur. The literacy rate has increased after the independence of the country from the Pakistan. There are many schools, mosques, and temples in the city.
There is a big Zoo in the heart of the city. There is an ancient auditorium in the city where different programs are held. The economy of the people is weak since there is no major natural resource like minerals. The coal is found near this district. There is a large military containment in the town.