Naogaon (Bengali: Nowga) is a district in Northern Bangladesh. It is a part of the Rajshahi Division. This district is one of the oldest civilization of the world dating back before Buddha.
Naogaon Sadar Upazila
Paharpur: Paharpur is a small village 5 km. west of Jamalganj in the greater Rajshahi district where the remains of the most important and the largest known monastery south of the Himalayas have been excavated. This 7th century archaeological find covers approximately an area of 27 acres of land. The entire establishment, occupying a quadrangular court, measuring more than 900 ft. and from 12 ft, to 15 in height. With elaborate gateway complex on the north, there are 45 cells on the north and 44 in each of the other three sides with a total number of 177 rooms. The architecture of the pyramidal cruciform temple is profoundly influenced by those of South-East Asia, especially Myanmar and Java. It had taken its name from a high mound, which looked like pahar or hillock. A site museum built recently houses the representative collection of objects recovered from the area. The excavated findings have also been preserved at the Varendra Research Museum at Rajshahi. The antiquities of the museum include terracotta plaques, images of different gods and goddess', potteries, coin inscriptions, ornamental bircks and other minor clay objects. This is also known as SOMPUR MAHAVIHAR.
Kusumba Mosque is named after the village of Kusumba, under the Manda upazila of Naogaon district, on the west bank of the Atrai river. It is inside a walled enclosure with a monumental gateway that has standing spaces for guards. It was built during the period of Afghan rule in Bengal under one of the last Suri rulers Ghiyasuddin Bahadur Shah, by one Sulaiman who was probably a high ranking official. The inscription tablet in Arabic (only the word 'built by' is in Persian) dating the building to 966 AH (1558-59 AD) is fixed over its eastern central entrance. Although built during Suri rule, it is not influenced at all by the earlier Suri architecture of North India, and is well grounded in the Bengal style. The brick building, gently curved cornice, and the engaged octagonal corner towers are typical features. D.A Salek & Md. Abdul Matin khan 01723059969.
The mosque, presently protected by the Department of Archaeology of Bangladesh, was badly damaged during the earthquake of 1897. Although the main fabric of the building is of brick, the entire exterior walls, and the interior up to the arches of the pendentives have stone facing. The columns, platform, floor, and perforated side screens are of stone. The mosque has a rectangular plan with three bays and two aisles, three entrances on the east and two each on the north and south sides. The central mihrab is projected in the west. The interior west (qibla) wall has two mihrabs on the floor level opposite the central and southeastern entrances, but the one in the northwestern bay is above a raised platform ascended by a staircase on the east. The presence of such a platform in a non-imperial mosque indicates that not only royalty, but nobility and high-ranking officials were also separated from the general public during prayers.
The mihrabs have elaborate stone carving. They have cusped arches crowned with kalasa (water pot) motifs, supported on intricately carved stone pillars which have projections and tasseled decorations hanging from chains. Bunches of grapes and vines curve in an almost serpentine manner on the mihrab frames, and kalasas, tendrils and rosettes are reduced to dots. The platform edge has grape vine decoration, and there are rosettes on the spandrels of the arches supporting the platform, as well as on the mihrab wall.
The stone used in the exterior facing is of a coarse quality and carved in shallow relief. Mouldings are most prominent decorative feature on the outside. They divide the walls into upper and lower sections, run all along the curved cornice, around the corner towers, in a straight line below the cornice, and frame the rectangular panels in the east, south and north walls. The spandrels of the central entrance arch are filled with small kalasa and rosette motifs. The north and south sides have screened windows.
Bibliography Ahmad Hasan Dani, Muslim Architecture in Bengal, Dacca, 1961; Catherine B Asher, 'Inventory of Key Monuments', in George Michell (ed), Islamic Heritage of Bengal, Paris: UNESCO, 1984.
Patisar Patisar village associated with rabindranath tagore in naogaon district. It is situated on the banks of the Nagor, 12 kilometres south-east of the Atrai railway station and 26 kilometres from the district town. The headquarters of the Tagore family's zamindari in Kaligram Pargana were located at Patisar. dwarkanath tagore, the grandfather of Rabindranath Tagore, purchased this zamindari in 1830. Rabindranath Tagore first came to Patisar in January 1891. The architectural design of the two-storied Kuthibari of Patisar is similar to that of Shilaidaha-Shahjadpur. The buildings, adjacent to the main mansion, are now reduced to debris. A pond, named Rabindrasarobar, is now a silted up marsh. During his stay at Patisar, Tagore composed various poems, stories, novels, essays and the verse-play Biday Abhishap. He also established many primary schools, a school named Rathindranath High School, charitable dispensaries, and Patisar Krishi Bank (1905). He introduced tractors in Patisar and formed co-operative societies for the development of agriculture, handloom, and pottery. In 1921, when the zamindari was divided, Patisar fell to Tagore's share. When the poet was awarded the Nobel Prize, the tenants of Patisar felicitated him with an address of honour (1913). On the request of his tenants, Tagore visited Patisar in 1937 for the last time on the occasion of punya. Every year many devotees of Tagore come from home and abroad to visit Patisar. On the occasions of Tagore's birth and death anniversaries, discussion meetings and cultural functions are held at Patisar.
Naogaon (Town) a municipal town, has an area of 37.03 sq km. It consists of 9 wards and 62 mahallas. The town has a population of 123101; male 51.78%, female 48.22%; literacy rate among the town people is 48.5%. It has one dakbungalow and one rest house.
Administration Naogaon subdivision, under Rajshahi district, was established in 1877 and was turned into a district in 1984. It consists of 2 municipality, 11 upazilas, 18 wards, 74 mahallas, 99 union parishads and 2795 villages. The upazilas are naogaon sadar, atrai, badalgachhi, dhamoirhat, manda, mahadevpur, niamatpur, patnitala, porsha, raninagar and sapahar.
Archaeological heritage Paharpur Buddhist Vihara, Jagaddal Vihara, Halud Vihara, Agrapuri Vihara
Historical events Indigo rebellion (1859-62); peasant revolt against the zamindar in protest of increasing land revenue (1883).
War of Liberation Mass grave 9; mass killing site 7, memorial sculpture 1, monument 1.
Population 2377314; male 50.66% and female 49.34%; Muslim 84.51%, Hindu 11.39%, ethnic nationals (mainly Santal, Oraon and Mahali) 3.45% and others 0.65%.
Religious institutions Mosque 3752, temple 206, church 21. Noted religious institutions are Barunkandi Jami Mosque (1802), Naogaon Jami Mosque (1845), Chakrampur Jami Mosque (1800), Sultanpur Jame Mosque (1802), Hat Naogaon Jame Mosque (1935), Naogaon Temple (adjunct Kanchari Road).
Literacy and educational institutions Average literacy 28.4%; male 35.9% and female 20.4%. Educational institutions: college 47, high school 309, junior school 49, government primary school 794, non-government primary school 559, madrasa 167. Noted institutions: Naogaon High School (1884), Raja Haranath High School (1990), Kaligram Rabindranath Institute (1910), Chak Athita High School, English School (1914), Chakla High School (1916), Kritipur High School (1921), Sharbamanal High School (1921), Coronation High School (1927), Paramohan Girl's High School (1909), Central Girl's High School (1926), Naogaon Girl's High School (1948), Basiruddin Memorial Co operative College (1946),
Newspaper Dainik Ishtehar (1971), Joybangla (1971), Bangabani (1971), Banglar Kantha (1993); weekly: Saptahik Desher Bani (1925), Saptahik Banka Chand (1950), Naba-Diganta (1964), Nabayug (1964); extinct: Barendra Batra, (1981), Surya Mukhi (1982), Nababarta (1991).
Cultural organisations Club 668, press club 1, public library 27, cinema hall 40, dakbungalow 20, circuit house 1.
Main occupations Agriculture 49.01%, fishing 1.25%, agricultural labourer 26.96%, wage labourer 2.3%, commerce 8.35%, service 3.46%, others 8.67%.
Land use Cultivable land 2777573 hectares, fallow land 68715 hectares; single crop 25%, double crop 55% and treble crop land 20%. Land under irrigation 61%.
Land control Among the peasants 9.6% are rich, 11.1% medium, 62% small and marginal.
Main crops Paddy, potato, watermelon, oil seeds, pulses.
Extinct or nearly extinct crops Opium, indigo, aman and aus paddy, tobacco, vetch.
Fruit production Mango, jackfruit, banana, litchi, coconut.
Fisheries, poultries, dairies Fishery 9, dairy 65, poultry 119.
Commutation facilities Roads: pucca 374.77 km, semi pucca 59.12 km and mud road 3595.32 km; railway 15 km; waterways 36 nautical mile.
Traditional transport Palanquin, horse carriage, bullock cart, buffalo cart. These means of transport are either extinct or nearly extinct.
Manufactories Automatic rice and husking mill, ice factory, flour mill, oil mill, sawmill, welding etc.
Cottage industries Goldsmith, blacksmith, potteries, blacksmith, bamboo, cane and mat work, tailoring etc.
Hats, bazars and fairs Total number of hats and bazars is 207.
Main exports Paddy, rice and potato.
NGO activities Most active NGOs operating in the district are brac, ITCL, CARE, grameen bank, thengamara mahila sabuj sangha.
Health centres District hospital 1, upazila heath complex 10, union heath centre 35, family planning centre 42, christian missionary hospital 1.